Contemporary Management of Refractory Angina
Refractory angina (RA) is defined as chest pain caused by coronary ischemia in patients on maximal medical therapy and is not amenable to revascularization despite advanced coronary artery disease (CAD). The long-term prognosis has improved with optimal medical therapy including risk factor modification. Still, patients are left with major impairment in quality of life and have high resource utilization with limited treatment options. We review the novel invasive and noninvasive therapies under investigation for RA.