Bio concept 3d renering

Cellular collusion: cracking the code of immunosuppression and chemo resistance in PDAC

Despite the efforts, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still highly lethal. Therapeutic challenges reside in late diagnosis and establishment of peculiar tumor microenvironment (TME) supporting tumor outgrowth. This stromal landscape is highly heterogeneous between patients and even in the same patient. The organization of functional sub-TME with different cellular compositions provides evolutive advantages and sustains therapeutic resistance. Tumor progressively establishes a TME that can suit its own needs, including proliferation, stemness and invasion. Cancer-associated fibroblasts and immune cells, the main non-neoplastic cellular TME components, follow soluble factors-mediated neoplastic instructions and synergize to promote chemoresistance and immune surveillance destruction. Unveiling heterotypic stromal-neoplastic interactions is thus pivotal to breaking this synergism and promoting the reprogramming of the TME toward an anti-tumor milieu, improving thus the efficacy of conventional and immune-based therapies. We underscore recent advances in the characterization of immune and fibroblast stromal components supporting or dampening pancreatic cancer progression, as well as novel multi-omic technologies improving the current knowledge of PDAC biology. Finally, we put into context how the clinic will translate the acquired knowledge to design new-generation clinical trials with the final aim of improving the outcome of PDAC patients.