Bio concept 3d renering

Cancer Research: Nanoparticles That Reshape the Tumor Milieu Create a Therapeutic Window for Effective T-cell Therapy in Solid Malignancies


A major obstacle to the success rate of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-) T-cell therapy against solid tumors is the microenvironment antagonistic to T cells that solid tumors create. Conventional checkpoint blockade can silence lymphocyte anti-survival pathways activated by tumors, but because they are systemic, these treatments disrupt immune homeostasis and induce autoimmune side effects. Thus, new technologies are required to remodel the tumor milieu without causing systemic toxicities. Here, we demonstrate that targeted nanocarriers that deliver a combination of immune-modulatory agents can remove protumor cell populations and simultaneously stimulate antitumor effector cells. We administered repeated infusions of lipid nanoparticles coated with the tumor-targeting peptide iRGD and loaded with a combination of a PI3K inhibitor to inhibit immune-suppressive tumor cells and an α-GalCer agonist of therapeutic T cells to synergistically sway the tumor microenvironment of solid tumors from suppressive to stimulatory. This treatment created a therapeutic window of 2 weeks, enabling tumor-specific CAR-T cells to home to the lesion, undergo robust expansion, and trigger tumor regression. CAR-T cells administered outside this therapeutic window had no curative effect. The lipid nanoparticles we used are easy to manufacture in substantial amounts, and we demonstrate that repeated infusions of them are safe. Our technology may therefore provide a practical and low-cost strategy to potentiate many cancer immunotherapies used to treat solid tumors, including T-cell therapy, vaccines, and BITE platforms.