Ischemia with non-obstructive coronary arteries (INOCA) is an increasingly recognized disease, with a prevalence of 3 to 4 million individuals, and is associated with a higher risk of morbidity, mortality, and a worse quality of life. Persistent angina in many patients with INOCA is due to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), which can be difficult to diagnose and treat. A coronary flow reserve <2.5 is used to diagnose endothelial-independent CMD. Antianginal treatments are often ineffective in endothelial-independent CMD and thus novel treatment modalities are currently being studied for safety and efficacy. CD34+ cell therapy is a promising treatment option for these patients, as it has been shown to promote vascular repair and enhance angiogenesis in the microvasculature. The resulting restoration of the microcirculation improves myocardial tissue perfusion, resulting in the recovery of coronary microvascular function, as evidenced by an improvement in coronary flow reserve. A pilot study in INOCA patients with endothelial-independent CMD and persistent angina, treated with autologous intracoronary CD34+ stem cells, demonstrated a significant improvement in coronary flow reserve, angina frequency, Canadian Cardiovascular Society class, and quality of life (ESCaPE-CMD, NCT03508609). This work is being further evaluated in the ongoing FREEDOM (NCT04614467) placebo-controlled trial.